By Agence France-Presse
The quake struck at 8:02 am (1302 GMT), with its epicenter five kilometers (three miles) southeast of a town also named Colombia, in the central region of Huila, said the Colombian Geological Service.
Schools and offices were evacuated in Bogota, a city of seven million people. Residents reported scenes of panic in other cities where the quake was felt, including Cali, the country's third-largest.
"No reports of damages after earthquake in Colombia. We remain watchful for further reports," President Juan Manuel Santos said on Twitter.
The US Geological Survey put the magnitude at 5.6 and said the quake struck at a depth of 37.3 kilometers.