The three-day meeting led by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) brings together specialists in animal diseases as well as agricultural policy from nine countries neighbouring China.
China, the world's largest pork producer and consumer, reported its first case in August in northeastern Liaoning province. The disease has since spread south prompting a cull of 38,000 pigs.
African swine fever does not affect humans but causes haemorrhagic fever in pigs and wild boars that is nearly always fatal.
There is no antidote or vaccine, and the only known preventive measure is a mass cull of infected livestock.
"It's critical that this region be ready for the very real possibility that ASF could jump the border into other countries," the FAO's Wantanee Kalpravidh said in a statement.
"That's why this emergency meeting has been convened -- to assess where we are now and to determine how we can work together in a co-ordinated, regional response."
Swine fever spreads by contact between infected pigs, ticks or other wild animals and can inflict massive economic damage on farms.
Participants at the Bangkok meeting come from Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam.