By The Washington Post · Erica Werner · NATIONAL, BUSINESS, HEALTH, POLITICS, CONGRESS, WHITEHOUSE, US-GLOBAL-MARKETS
The Senate approved the legislation Tuesday. President Donald Trump has said he will sign the measure that would then restart a small-business loan program that was swamped by demand during the coronavirus pandemic and allocate more money for health-care providers and virus testing.
The House vote was historic, as many lawmakers wore masks on the House floor, some speaking through face coverings as they delivered impassioned remarks.
Hours earlier, the Labor Department announced that 4.4 million Americans sought unemployment benefits last week. More than 26 million people have now filed jobless claims since coronavirus knocked the U.S. economy off course last month, beginning an extraordinary economic tailspin.
Lawmakers from both major parties are already talking about pursuing more large spending bills to try to contain the pandemic's economic fallout, but the measure on Thursday could be the last one for at least several weeks as divisions emerge between the parties about how much further to go.
Because the country's economic problems continue to mount, the White House and Congress have had to continually revisit policies and stimulus programs to expand government assistance for more people and businesses. Many companies are shuttered, and state leaders have begun an uneven process of trying to decide when to relax certain restrictions.
They have now committed almost $3 trillion in emergency spending to battling the economic fallout from the coronavirus, but there are fresh signs that policymakers are becoming more wary of the public backlash that has begun over some of their decisions.
The Treasury Department on Thursday issued guidance making it much harder for publicly traded companies to qualify for money that was supposed to go to small businesses, threatening penalties in some cases if firms didn't repay money they had already received. And the Federal Reserve announced that it would be disclosing the names of companies that receive funding from some of its assistance programs after complaints that the central bank was not being transparent about which companies received taxpayer aid.
The legislation set for a vote Thursday was negotiated between the Trump administration and congressional leaders after the small-business Paycheck Protection Program - created as part of last month's $2 trillion economic stimulus package - ran out of money last week and stopped processing loans. The new measure includes $310 billion to replenish this program, $60 billion for a separate small-business emergency loan and grant program, $75 billion for hospitals and health-care providers, and $25 billion for a new coronavirus testing program.
The Trump administration had initially asked Congress to approve $250 billion to bolster the Paycheck Protection Program with no strings attached, but Democrats refused. They pushed for spending for hospitals and testing, as well as changes to the small-business program itself to make sure more money goes to lesser-served communities and through smaller lenders.
The program has proved extremely popular and controversial, in part because some large hotel and restaurant chains were able to access the money while many smaller firms were blocked out. Acknowledging these disparities, the Treasury Department on Thursday said Paycheck Protection Program loan recipients are expected to self-certify "in good faith" that they actually need the loan.
The agency said borrowers cannot have other options that would not be "significantly detrimental" to the business. The Small Business Administration retains the right to audit borrowers later.
The Senate passed the bill Tuesday with a few lawmakers present. The House vote proceeded much differently because Republicans insisted on a "quorum," or majority of members to be on hand. To ensure safety and social distancing, House members voted alphabetically in eight groups with separate time slots for each so they could maintain their distance.
The scene on the House floor as debate got underway Thursday was a reminder of the pall the coronavirus has cast over the nation, where fatalities from the virus are approaching 50,000 and at least 843,000 cases have been reported. House officials and staff members along with many lawmakers of both parties wore masks or other face coverings, which some lawmakers removed only to deliver speeches on the floor. As lawmakers discussed the measure, Rep. Maxine Waters, D-Calif., announced on the House floor that her sister was dying in St. Louis after recently contracting the virus.
The bill will be the fourth economic rescue and stimulus bill Congress has passed in the past two months to deal with the ravages of the coronavirus, bringing the total federal commitment close to $3 trillion. Lawmakers have already begun to debate what next steps to take, with Democrats and Trump pushing for quick action on another giant rescue bill that would include funding for cities and states left out of the legislation being passed Thursday.
But Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., has expressed opposition to aiding states in such a way, telling a conservative radio host on Wednesday that perhaps some states should have the option of falling into bankruptcy. This elicited fury from some governors and House Democrats on Thursday.
As the next bill was still being debated, Democrats and Republicans also spoke in favor of the one on the House floor Thursday, the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act.
"Refilling the Paycheck Protection Program account will help countless small businesses and employers across the country, including hundreds in my district," Rep. Tom Cole, R-Okla., said on the floor. "Frankly, refilling this important account could not come soon enough. It should have happened a week ago. But I'm fully supportive of this important bill."
The Paycheck Protection Program is intended to help businesses with fewer than 500 employees keep workers on payrolls by extending loans of up to $10 million that would not need to be repaid if employers keep paying their workforce. Its rollout was rocky amid overwhelming demand, and some small businesses were unable to get loans even as some large businesses such as the Ruth's Chris Steakhouse chain obtained loans through big banks.
Nonetheless, success stories emerged from community lenders that were able to use the program successfully and small businesses helped by the provisions. A Goldman Sachs survey of nearly 2,000 small businesses released Thursday found that 91% had applied for loans under the Paycheck Protection Program and about half of the those who were approved said the money would allow them to retain their entire workforce.